Skin contains melanin, a naturally-occurring pigment that gives skin color.
Its purpose is protective, which is why skin becomes darker when exposed to the sun without sunscreen.
Melanin can also be produced in excess as a protective response to insults or attacks on the top layer of skin.
While sun exposure is the primary cause of skin discoloration, a variety of factors can contribute such as genetics,
hormonal fluctuations, acne, localized skin irritation, and other environmental aggressors such as pollution-induced
free radicals. Regardless of the cause, skin discoloration can be present as dark patches, isolated spots, or an overall
darker facial appearance. It is often difficult to treat and prevention is key for managing skin discoloration in topical
skincare. This requires diligent use of sunscreen and an effective
topical vitamin C antioxidant.